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格萨尔故里—德格

多吉彭措 2019-06-09 08:48

藏族民间谚语说:“自格萨尔出名后便时兴赛马,自珠牡妃出名后便流行赛歌。”藏区各地盛行赛马就是为了纪念他们心中的民族英雄岭·格萨尔赛马登位称王。相传吐蕃王朝瓦解之后,青藏高原又陷入一片混乱,部落间连年仇杀,生灵涂炭,岭部落的首领年事已高,他发出通告:谁要是在赛马比赛中赢得第一,就可以继承王位,并将美丽的公主许配给他。
 

 

 

  As the Tibetan proverb goes, Horseracing enjoyed great popularity since Gesar gained his fame; song contest became prevailing since Concubine Zhumu came to the front. The popular horseracing in Tibetan areas is aimed to commemorate King Gesar the national hero in the hearts of the Tibetans, who was believed to come to the throne by means of horseracing. It was said with the collapse of the Tubo Regime the Plateau ran into a big chaos and the tribes killed in revenge each other year after year, which plunged the people into an abyss of misery. By then the chieftain of the Ling Tribe, considering his old age, issued a notification, which said the horseracing champion would be awarded with the kingship and get married with the beautiful princesses.

 

 

 

选手都是各部落的王子,骑的都是高头大马,只有格萨尔是一个贫民,坐骑是一匹瘦小的枣红马。然而格萨尔却以超人的智慧和骑术在那场赛马比赛中获得第一,登上王位,并由此创建了庞大的岭国部落联盟,率领三十员大将和八十员小将四处征战,降妖除魔,统一了150余个部落和邦国,为辽阔的草原创建了一片和平祥和的天空。

 

 


 

  With the exception of Gesar, a poor young man only having a lean and small red horse, all the horseracing players, riding on tall horses, were princes of the other tribes. Nevertheless, Gesar won the championship with his outstanding wisdom and equitation and took the throne of the tribe. Since then he established Ling Kingdom, a massive tribal league, and led his 30 senior generals and 80 young generals to match into battles all round to vanquish demons and monsters. Eventually he united about 150 tribe and states and brought permanent peace and luck to the vast grasslands.

 

 

 

  长篇史诗《格萨尔王传》便是以岭·格萨尔王的故事为主要内容组成的,内容包罗万象,有民间习俗、宗教、军事、农牧业生产等诸多知识,既是一卷史书,也是研究青藏高原的重要百科全书。据各地“格学”专家统计,《格萨尔王传》有700多部,共两千多万诗行,是世界上最长的史诗,是《荷马史诗》的700多倍,是印度《摩诃婆罗多》《罗摩衍那》两部史诗的90多倍。

 

 

 

  The long epic poetry King Gesar of Lingis mainly composed of the stories of King Gesar, and contains all inclusively a good many of knowledge of folk customs, religion, military affairs, agriculture and animal breeding. It is not only a history record but also an important cyclopedia for the study of the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau. According to statistics by the experts of the “Gesar Study”, this longest 700-volume epic poetry in the world is written in more than 20 million verses, which meansKing Gesar of Lingis 700 times longer than Homer, or 90 times longer than Mahabharata together with Ramayana.

 

 

 

在藏区,《格萨尔王传》成了藏民们的理想和追求,在某种意义上来说,它与藏传佛教一样,支撑着藏民族精神的天空。有关格萨尔的传说和故事,在藏区有多种形式的载体,有诗歌、民歌、赞词、绘画、寺院羌姆等。

 

 

 

  In Tibetan areas, King Gesar of Lingsymbolizes the ideal and pursuit of the Tibetans; To some extent, it, the Tibetan Buddhism, upholds the spiritual sky of the Tibetan nation. The legends and stories of Gesar are expressed in forms of poems, folk songs, hymns, paintings, and Jiangmu (monastic dances).

 

 

 

在一些寺院里,还塑有格萨尔和他的30员大将以及80位英雄的各种造像,在藏民的心中,格萨尔是智勇双全、除暴安良、救苦救难的英雄,是人神合一的保护神。随着历史的发展,宁玛派宗师米旁·降央朗杰嘉措创立了格萨尔及其护法神修持、祈祷、烟祭供奉、招财进宝等诸方面的仪轨,形成了独特的宗教文化现象。由于格萨尔深入人心,各地藏戏团应运而生,有关格萨尔的藏戏是藏族群众喜爱的节目。

 

 

 

  In some monasteries, the statues of Gesar as well as his generals were established for worship. In the hearts of the Tibetans, Gesar is a brave and resourceful hero, getting rid of bullies and bringing peace to good people; Gesar is the human-god-combined protector, helping the needy and relieving the distressed With the development of the history, Mipang. Jiangyangnangjijiacuo the great master of Nyingma Sect founded the ceremony and ritual of practicing, praying, smoke worshipping and treasure gatheringconcerning of Gesar and his Protector, which brought forth an unique religious cultural phenomena. As Gesar went deep into the peoples hearts, Tibetan troupes emerged in many places as the time required and people warmly welcomed the Tibetan operas relating to King Gesar.

 

 

 

关于格萨尔的出生地,一直以来争议不休,其实史诗《格萨尔》中对英雄诞生有详细的描绘:“要说觉如的出生地,名叫吉苏亚格康多,两水交汇潺潺响,两岸相对如箭羽,两个草坪如铺毡,前山大鹏凝布窝,后山青岩碧玉峰,右山如同母虎吼,左山矛峰是红岩。”其所指之地便是今德格县的阿须草原,经过众多格学专家研究和多年的考证,确定格萨尔就出生在今德格县阿须乡。

 

 

 

  There has long been a dispute about the birthplace of Gesar. As a matter of fact, the birthplace had been described particularly in the epic poetry King Gesar of Lingthe birthplace is just named as Jishuyagekangduo. Two rivers meet and whisper, the banks face to face like arrow feathers; two grasslands extend like rolling mats; the front mountain resembles to an eagle guarding over its nest; the rear mountain is as green as jade; the right mountain likes a roaring female tiger; and the red cliffs of the left mountain spear upward the sky. Through many experts study and long-year investigation, the birthplace indicated in the poetry is fixed on the Ahaxu Town of Dege on the Ahaxu Grassland. On the twenty-third of August.

 

 

 

2002823日,格萨尔铜像在德格阿须乡落成,那天迎来了上万各地群众和许多的格学专家。阿须草原上还有格萨尔家族的家庙,后来逐渐成为民众瞻仰和纪念格萨尔王的公共场所,即现在的格萨尔纪念堂。

 

 

 

  2002, the biggest statue of Gesar in the world was completed at Ahaxu Town and thousands of people and experts of Gesar Study came over for celebration. The Shrine of the Family Gesar had gradually developed into the public for people to worship and commemorate. Now people call the shrine as Gesar Commemoration Hall.

  

 

  

在德格,可以说随处都有与格萨尔有关的遗迹。岭国原分为上中下三部,中岭部落在今龚垭乡一带,其古都甲察遗址尚存。另外,俄支乡有一座格萨尔修建的古堡——森周达泽忠城堡,古堡占地面积达40000多平方米,气势宏伟,这里曾是格萨尔王的行营所在地,是证明格萨尔王最早建立都城的重要实物。

 

 

 

  The remains concerning Gesar are available to be seen in every corner of Dege. The Ling Kingdom was formerly divided into three parts; the tribes of Middle Ling Part inhabited in the area of the present-day Gongya Town, where the Gudujiacha Site remained. Besides, Shengzhoudazezhong Castle, built by Gesar at present Ozhi Town, covers an area of 40,000 square meters. It was once the temporary dwelling place of Gesar, and serves as an important practical proof of Gesars earliest capital.

 

 


 

另外,德格还有很多地名均与格萨尔或其大将有关,著名的玉隆拉措便是其中之一。玉隆拉措又名新路海,相传为格萨尔王妃珠牡一见倾心的地方;打滚乡然尼,是格萨尔当年牧羊的地方;麦宿鲁欧友刀古寨,是岭国大将甲察之子的宫寨……

 

 

 

Furthermore, many placenames of Dege are related to Gesar and his generals and his concubines. For examples, Zhumu, one of the concubines of Gesar was be enamored with Yulong Lacuo (the Xinluhai Lake) at the first sight; Gesar at his young age worked as a shepherd at Dagunxiangranni; Maixiuluoyou was the old stockaded village owned by the son of Jiacha, one of the famous generals of Gesar.
 

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